Fr. Jacob Dankasa – My Blog

Posts Tagged ‘Religion

In today’s world, technology has provided us with a means for easy and accessible communication with a global audience in addition to our everyday face-to-face interactions. The faceless nature of technology – through the Internet and social media – has given many people the courage to express themselves in a way that they are not able to do in real-life face-to-face communication. This is a positive development. Unfortunately, this ability to courageously express feelings and thoughts through Internet technology has also introduced a callous attitude to communication and expression that promotes intolerance and hate among people. In the process of free and faceless expression, some have ignored the place of charity in human interactions. Pope Francis, in his message for the 50th World Communications Day (2016), emphasized the fruitful encounter between communication and mercy. His message was an invitation to the world to use the means of communication with which this generation has blessed us to communicate with fraternal love and charity, not by spreading hate and division.

This brief paper reflects on the relationship between communication and mercy and delineates the responsibilities of the person that communicates, especially in a time when technology appears to be a major aid to communication and transmission of information. As we reflect on the invitation to communicate with mercy, love and charity, the challenge to us as people of faith is: how do we do this? How do we communicate with love and fraternal charity in a society that is culturally and religiously diverse? How do we communicate with mercy in a world torn apart by religious intolerance? How do we communicate with mercy in a world where ethnicity and race are central points of identity? I believe that the answer lies in developing a communication spirituality that is guided by the principles of our faith.

Developing a Communication Spirituality

The message of the Holy Father for the 50th World Communications Day caused me to further reflect on the emerging concept of communication spirituality. This is a new concept; it attaches a spiritual meaning to communication beyond the everyday understanding of communication as a process of transmission of messages from sender to receiver. Communication spirituality embodies the idea that such transmission of messages should lead to building up humanity, not destroying it. Communication spirituality is embedded in the meaning of communication and mercy as presented by Pope Francis: “In a broken, fragmented and polarized world, to communicate with mercy means to help create a healthy, free and fraternal closeness between the children of God and all our brothers and sisters in the one human family” (Pope Francis, 50th World Communications Day, #11).

As we use the various tools of communication, particularly the new media technologies such as the Internet and social media, I invite us to develop a communication spirituality that will enable us to communicate with mercy, love and fraternal charity. Communication spirituality ensures that whatever comes out from the inside of us and is expressed in a message – in the real world or online –  should always flow from, and be grounded in, the spiritual experience that has been internalized as a result of our faith. Technology does not communicate; it is the person that communicates by the use of technology. Therefore, it is impossible to remove the human element from true communication. Communication spirituality reinforces the demands of our faith that encourage respect for differences and accommodation of diversity in our human relationships.

The Internet facilitates and enables interaction between and among people of different cultures, races, belief systems, political inclinations and geographical locations. Communication spirituality helps us to value and appreciate our differences through the sharing of ideas and knowledge that enhances growth. Technology does not have the ability to do all these things. As an instrument, it only facilitates these behaviors. The ability to carry out these behaviors is exclusive to humans. Technology does not hurt our feelings; humans do. Technology does not judge anyone; humans do. Technology does not have a heart; humans do. Technology does not interact; humans do. According to Pope Francis, “it is not technology which determines whether or not communication is authentic, but rather the human heart and our capacity to use wisely the means at our disposal” (Pope Francis, 50th World Communications Day, #10).

Therefore, we should never allow the facelessness we feel when using a piece of technology to make us forget that we are persons with a heart and feelings, communicating with another person or persons with human features just like we have. The fact that some may seem heartless and mean in their communication with us, is not an excuse to pay them back in their own coin by becoming heartless and mean as well. Rather, it is an opportunity to put our communication spirituality into play: communicate with conviction, in love and with fraternal charity. This type of communication sets us apart as people of faith and encourages peaceful collaboration and integration among people in our society.

Communication spiritualty in a multicultural environment demands that our Facebook posts, our tweets, our text messages, our blog posts, and our face-to-face conversations have, as their end, the desire to contribute to the common good of the person and the society. To develop a communication spirituality in a pluralistic society is to value the benefits of technology, which are a gift to our generation, and to use these tools to promote peaceful coexistence. People should use technologies to communicate their opinions and knowledge without resorting to hurting other people by demeaning their faith, their ethnicity, personalities or any other natural human attribute that may apply to them. When religious people allow the principles of their faith to guide their communication activities, they will realize that “communication has the power to build bridges, to enable encounter and inclusion, and thus to enrich society” (Pope Francis, 50th World Communications Day, #3). This is true communication spirituality in practice. It is the act of communicating with mercy, with love and with charity.

In our multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, politicians and religious leaders must understand the diversity that stands before them. The thoughts they express have great impact on the lives of the people. We must not allow anger or sentiments to guide our utterances. Rational communication is needed to make our world better. Communication spirituality means sacrificing our anger and our sentiments, and communicating with a voice that is firm but charitable. Communicating with mercy, love and charity can have a positive influence on many people and can bring about conversion in the heart of the receiver of our messages. But hate only begets hate. When we preach hate, post hate, and return hate with hate, all we get is more hate and no peace. Any communication that blocks further opportunities for renewed relationships and reconciliation stands against mercy, love and peace.

Finally, when we develop a communication spirituality that is centered on fraternal charity and mercy, we begin to communicate with respect, with integrity, with a sense of justice, with a heart of compassion and with a desire to be of service to humanity.

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Modern media have penetrated every sphere of human life, and they are influencing the way things are done. By modern media I mean the new media technologies (social media, smartphone/tablet technologies, apps, online games, etc.) which are convergent of the traditional media (television, radio, newspaper, etc.). Central to this convergent media is Internet technology. Because the influence of the modern media is both positive and negative, this article enumerates both the pros and cons of these modern media for the family. Young people of today are certainly born online and raised by technology. This paper is aimed at helping families, especially those raising children, develop a strategy for harvesting the benefits of the growing technology innovations and preventing their pitfalls. The goal is to nurture the family in an online environment guided by ethical and moral values of decency and respect.

The Positive Influence of New Media Technologies for Families

  • They create opportunities for networking among families to keep them together regardless of geographical distance.
  • They have provided families with tools that enable them to form family prayer groups online through group blogs, group chats and conference calls.
  • More families are able to own personal electronic bibles that can be used anywhere and anytime. These can be used for individual or family reflections to enhance and encourage growth in the spiritual life.
  • Modern media tools can be used to create small Christian support groups (e.g., WhatsApp and Facebook pages and groups).
  • They bring families very close to sources of information.
  • New media have exposed more grass-roots people to the process of engagement, especially in democratic and political landscapes.
  • Through social media and the Internet, more people and families find connections that lead to the acquisition of jobs, enrollment in institutions of learning and other opportunities which were previously not possible.

 The Negative Influence of New Media Technologies for Families

  • New ideologies can be spread easily through the Internet and the social media. These are mostly negative ideologies meant to mislead the gullible. They include atheistic ideologies, religious extremism, social behaviors contrary to faith and nature, and other ideologies opposed to family values. Those which promote false sense of independence from one’s culture and family are especially dangerous.
  • In the developing countries of Africa, for example, there is the eroding of cultural values which are replaced by foreign, and often, misunderstood, cultures because they appear flashy on the Internet. Losing the sense of respect in manner of speech, and the distorted understanding of beauty through immodest dressing and disrespect for the body are examples of this cultural erosion.
  • The new technologies provide more access to pornographic and obscene images and videos which takes away intimacy in marital relationships and replaces it with sensual pleasure derived from imaginary objects presented on a screen. A British newspaper carried out a survey which revealed that 66% of women have watched pornographic videos, while nearly nine out of ten men (88%) do the same, and a quarter of them watch such videos every day (The Sun Newspaper, April 2, 2009). This trend is growing worse with increasing access to the Internet through mobile devices.
  • There are many websites today that connect people for sex and immodest dating. These are connect-online-and-meet-offline-sex-matching websites. Through the Internet, cheating is now easier; for example, AshleyMadison.com is a website that facilitates extramarital affairs. When the identities of users were exposed several years ago, many were family people. Similar sex-matching websites are expanding to other parts of the world. These types of websites encourage adultery and destroy the family.
  • Pedophiles infiltrate the Internet and commit sexual crimes with vulnerable children.
  • The growing use of mobile phones and chat applications for sexting is a destructive trend. People send nude photos of themselves with others, sometimes with strangers. This is carried out by both children and adults. This is a dangerous trend that works against decent family values.
  • Modern media can take away good human relationships. Some people may relate more to their smartphones than to members of their family. In such situations, someone other than the parent or other family member, may have great influence over a child, a husband or a wife than his parents or spouse. Never underestimate the danger that such external influences can pose to the existence of a family.

How the Church Can Help Families

Despite the negative influences that the modern media are capable of exerting on the family, I strongly believe that the benefits of the new media technologies outweigh the negatives. We live in a generation that is highly influenced by the new technologies, and this trend will only grow, not slow down. Young people of today are born into this movement of technology take-over. In the future, that may be all they know and use. What is needed is to teach people how to use these new media technologies to engage in positive activities that will help, and not destroy, them. The challenges are even greater for African families because of the gap that exists between the young and the old in technology adoption in Africa. The gap between young Internet-savvy users and parents is presumably large among African families, considering the interest level difference between the old and the young and the age gap of Internet users in Africa. This gap between young and old Internet users is gradually closing in the Western world, though it is still wide. But the excesses of usage may even be more difficult for African families to control because many people in Africa access the Internet on private cellphones, not through computers that can be guided and controlled by parents or supervisors.

The negatives of the new media technologies pose some special challenges to families raising young children. The Church needs to come to the rescue, to help families develop ethical standards on the use of Internet technology guided by Christian values. Below are some suggestions for the Church and its functionaries.

  • Develop and engage families in educational awareness programs on the benefits of the new media and their potential dangers. Parents who are not familiar with how the Internet works are more likely to ignore the dangers. Organize diocesan and parish seminars that target parents and children. These events should be conducted by experts in this area.
  • Promote and encourage families to engage in the use of the tools of the new media. Parents of young children should communicate with their children and have access to their social media platforms. Parents should be encouraged to join their children in using the social media. It is not enough to give rules to children; parents must lead by example. Discuss issues with children in a way that is nonthreatening. Merely stating the right and wrong, or even cautioning young children on the dangers of the Internet alone, is not sufficient to keep them from engaging in unwelcome practices. Parents should teach family values to their children on the Internet. Therefore, participation of parents in social media is very important.
  • Families should be encouraged to organize family activities frequently to increase the bonds among family members (e.g. sports, reunions, and celebrations of birthdays and anniversaries of marriages). This may likely minimize dependency on media technology that may be harmful to family relationships. This type of dependency removes an individual from the family and places his interest more on a piece of technology or on an outsider. There should be a balance between the use of the new media and participation in family activities.
  • Families should be encouraged to use a variety of media and resources to check facts about issues. Not everything on the Internet is factual or true. Education on this aspect will minimize the dangers of indoctrination with the wrong ideologies of religion, culture or atheistic values that are often found on the Internet.
  • The Church should provide precise answers to issues that concern faith and morals and educate people on the best and most credible Internet sites or media to use when seeking relevant answers to their questions or concerns.
  • Church leaders (bishops, clergy and religious) must learn, understand and get acquainted with the knowledge of current social, moral and religious issues in order to provide informed answers to people’s questions. Families should be encouraged to seek counsel with their pastors on controversial issues, especially about the Church and society, that are often misrepresented on the Internet. This means that the pastor must be familiar with these issues. There is a need for continuing education for pastors on these issues.
  • Finally, church leaders must learn and practice how to best use the tools of the modern media in order to teach others. Our society is growing more sophisticated through the new technologies. Church leaders that ignore this fact may find themselves irrelevant and left behind in the future of evangelization.

The media have undoubtedly undergone drastic changes in recent years thanks to the modern technological advancement which has brought about changes in methods of information processing and dissemination. The content of Mass Communication presented through a “broadcast” is gradually taking the form of a “narrowcast” where the older approaches to news are giving room to what is today referred to as “new news.” These are the results of the coming into play of the “New Media” which is the subject of this article. As these changes take place in society, and the global struggle to take advantage of technological sophistication to meet the information need of this age continues to grow, the concern of this paper is to examine how the Catholic Church should respond to this moving reality as she proclaims the Gospel of Christ to the same world and people. Since evangelization is a primary duty of the church, and evangelization cannot be effective without being communicated, the Catholic Church cannot but assess its effectiveness in the use of modern means of communication to transmit Christ to the world. This paper shall look at what the “New Media” are all about and examine where the Catholic Church should stand in this unfolding. It shall attempt proffering suggestions in areas where improvement or attention needs to be focused.

The New Media
The Wikipedia free encyclopedia describes the “New Media” as “a term meant to encompass the emergence of digital, computerized, or network information and communication technologies in the later part of the 20th century…often characterized of being manipulable, networkable, dense, compressible and impartiable.” In the new media traditional means of communication such as television, radio and newspapers are converged into one. Internet is the word used to describe the convergence point. Through the Internet one can watch TV, listen to radio and read news. The user can download and upload pictures and video. Media convergence has brought about the advent of digital television and online publication which can be readily available to millions of users at the same time, as opposed to the older media and the new media are very interactive. Werner J. Severin and James W. Tankard (2001), quoting McManus (1994), said of the new media: “We are shifting from content geared to mass audiences to content tailored for groups or individuals…from one way to interactive media.” With a computer or even a cell phone one can access the internet, television, radio, cable and publications; make telephone calls; carry out marketing; perform banking transactions; and do a host of other things. It is amazing that today television and radio are described as traditional means of communication. Very many years ago when I was learning social studies in the elementary school, methods that were described as traditional means of communication were the talking drums, town criers and other means that are now almost, if not completely extinct. But now with the new media, television, radio and newspapers are described as the “old news.”

The new media have also brought about the evolution of “cyber families.” You have Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, YouTube, chat rooms, Blogs and the like, which are also called social media where people share information with messages for targeted audiences. This is known as “cyberspace,” a term coined by William Gibson; it is a metaphorical space where electronic communication takes place (Severin W. & Tankard J., 2001). One interesting aspect of Cyber communication is that it has no geographical limit. Messages posted in Nigeria can be accessed globally. Russell W. Neuman opines that the new media “will alter the meaning of geographic distance, allow for a huge increase in the volume of communication, provide the possibility of increasing the speed of communication, provide opportunities for interactive communication and allow forms of communication that were previously separate to overlap and interconnect” (Newman as cited in Croteau & Hoynes 2003). Latest statistics have shown that out of the estimated world population of over 6.6 trillion, over 1.5 trillion were users of the Internet by the end of December 2008. This showed about 305.5% Internet usage growth from 2000-2008 (www.internetworldstats.com). Caincross (1998) describes the impact of the new media (media convergence) in globalization as a “death of distance.” The new media have blurred the gap between interpersonal communication and mass communication, and between public and private communication. It is gradually breaking down the dominance of the media conglomerates and news is becoming more competitive. The new media give more unlimited access to users and audience, unlike the mainstream media, which are mostly guided by their corporations that are victims of media consolidation. The corporations set down policies and rules, pick and choose what news is to be publicized and be sure it is not harmful to the commercial interests of the conglomerates. Religion in this kind of policy has limited access and may not be adequately transmitted. This is where the new media can be utilized.

The Catholic Church and the Effects of the New Media
Religion is one delicate issue that many people and nations tend not to pick up in news stories. In the United States for instance, the continuous stress on the separation of the state and religion has made religion take the back seat in the media. Religious issues are arguably those least transmitted in the media. When religion is stressed much in the media then it has to be when there is a religious scandal or controversy by or among those in the religious circle. When sometimes religion is spoken about in the media it is often misinterpreted or taught wrongly. The misreporting in the media is as a result of insufficient knowledge, negligence and deliberate jettisoning of religion and the fundamentals of the church.

Fr. John Flynn, in an article on ‘Misreporting Religion’ featured in the December 21, 2008 zenit.org, pointed out some examples of flaws in media reporting of religion. In an article in the December 15 issue of the American Newsweek Magazine, written by Lisa Miller on same-sex marriage, she argued that we cannot take the Bible as a reliable source on what marriage should be like, and also that neither the Bible nor Jesus explicitly defined marriage as being between a man and a woman. On December 15, 2008, the reader’s editor of the U.K’s Guardian newspaper had to admit that they had confused Mary’s Immaculate Conception with the virgin birth of Jesus in a published story on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. What is distressing about it is that the same newspaper had to publish corrections on this same topic seven times in ten years. When Webster Cook, a student at the University of Central Florida, smuggled a consecrated host out of a mass, a reporter of the Fox News, on July 7, 2008, while reporting this news, misstated that the host is believed by Catholics to “symbolize” the body of Christ. Instead the Catholic Church does not believe the Eucharist to be a mere “symbol” but the “true” Body of Christ. Fox News was corrected! But when it came to present the corrected version it made further error by saying that the host becomes the Body of Christ when it is “blessed” instead of “consecrated.” Michael J. Parker, Director of Communications, Oblate School of Theology, pointed out how the New York Times in its front page during Pope John Paul II’s lying-in-state referred to his pastoral staff as a “Crow’s ear” rather than “Crosier.” There are many such mistakes arising as a result of most secular journalists’ lack of knowledge of the subject.

In most parts of the world today there is a rising “religio-phobia” in the media owing to religion’s delicate nature. Recently in the U.S. a group of people were pleading the court to grant an injunction prohibiting the use of “so help me God” by the president of the nation during his swearing-in ceremony. For them the use of “God” tends to promote religion and since they do not believe in God they feel use of God’s name excludes them as citizens, which they claim is contrary to the religious freedom the U.S constitution upholds. In addition to this, some groups of individuals are clamouring for same-sex marriage, which they feel not legalising is denying them part of their human rights, a choice of sexual orientation. In Nigeria similar misinterpretations are present and in addition, religion in the media is treated according to geographical background. A region dominated by a certain religion seems to promote mostly that particular religion in the media to the detriment of the other. A lot of claims are made by people against the fundamental dictates of religion worldwide to the extent that issues about religion are becoming very delicate to be treated by the media in order not to hurt anyone. This is gradually leading to a dearth of news on religion.

With all these issues where does the Catholic Church stand in its mission of evangelization? The church has the duty to promote the gospel of Christ. It is a mission given to her by Christ himself and the church cannot but execute this call to mission. But the question is how does the church effectively carry out this mission in a world full of anger and detestation for God? It is a fact that our Sunday homilies are not enough to fulfill our evangelizing task. In most parts of the world today the majority of Christians and Catholics are not regular attendants at even the Sunday worship. How do we get our message to resonate with such people? How do we meet them in their homes and in the places they go? How do we confront the issue of our faithful being constantly misled by false teachings and misguided information? The media are part of the solution! But considering how the mainstream media outlets treat the issue of religion with a lot of disdain, it is absolutely clear that they can no longer be the effective means of communication that the church needs for evangelization today. We must develop a way of using the media to achieve our goal, and this must be done with a greater degree of independence from the mainstream media.

I must state here that the evangelicals have gone steps ahead of the Catholic Church in the use of the media to communicate their message. Considering the structure and size of the church, it will be a big set-back not utilize efficiently this means of communication. The new media have presented to us a new method of communication that could be utilized quite independently of the mainstream media. With the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) a lot of things can be done through the Internet. Archbishop Claudio Celli, the president of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications, affirmed that the Church does not succumb to fascination with new technologies, but neither does it fear using them to promote peace, love and the encounter with God. He alluded that these changes that are bringing about new culture of communication are urging Church communicators to include those who are left behind in this acceleration, and to collaborate among themselves forming links with those who are at the service of the same high objective to put the Lord Jesus Christ in the heart of the information society (Zenit.org, Dec. 12, 2008).

The Catholic Church in the developed countries should be seen utilizing the many technological advances they possess to preach the faith. The websites should not be left to the dominance of the marketers alone. Statistics indicate that 64.1% of Americans are Internet users (internetworldstats.com). It is estimated that 82% of U.S. teens ages 12-17 and 43.5% of children ages 3-11 will use the Internet on a monthly basis in 2009; and one out of three U.S. Internet users, that is more than 70 million consumers, also access the Internet through a mobile device. In the United Kingdom it is estimated that 1.3 million U.K. residents have come online since 2007 and a similar number will access the web for the first time between 2008 and 2009 (www.marketresearch.com).

Even for those of us in less technologically advanced countries like Nigeria, the Catholic Church can still utilize the technology available for disseminating the truth of our faith. Dioceses can develop TV and radio programs. We have professional Catholics in the mass media; the Bishops of Nigeria can join hands to develop a TV or radio network through which the Catholic faith can be transmitted. Let the different dioceses develop their websites to allow interactivity. Where the state media cannot allow transmission of our faith because of religious bias, the Internet can be utilized and people can blog on our sites and be sure to have answers to their questions. The church must continue to push for a more technologically advanced Nigeria, because the benefits to our faith outweigh the cost.

Above all, we must encourage our Catholic faithful to develop interest in the use of the Internet and encourage them to use it effectively. In Africa internet and Broadband markets are very much untapped. Though there is a remarkable growth in Internet uptake, its market penetration is very low due to the lack of reliable phone line networks, according to market research.com. African population was estimated to be about 955,206,348 at the end of 2008, and 53,136,930 of the African population were Internet users at the end of 2008. Africa now makes 5.4% of the total Internet users in the world. In Nigeria, Internet users made up 7.5% of the country’s population as at March 2008. That is about 10,000,000 Nigerians were Internet users in 2008 (www.internetworldstats.com). The numbers show some growth but much still remains untapped!

Suggestions
With the kind of growth we see in the usage of the Internet, it is certain that the new media are taking over the mainstream trend of communication. This has even led to addiction by many to the Internet, which is a negative side effect that must be moderated. This only shows an indication that the Catholic Church as a religious institution has to develop a method of reaching out to the faithful using the new media. In effect, the Church has to be a teacher and a moderator in the cyber world. Pope Benedict XVI is very loud and clear on this. He stated, “New technologies have an extraordinary potential, if used to favour understanding and human solidarity. These technologies are a real gift for humanity; therefore we have to make sure the advantages they offer are put to the service of all peoples and communities.” In his speech to the directors and staff of the Vatican Television Centre on December 18, 2008, the Pontiff said he wants “the life of the church to be present in audio, text and video on the Internet.” It is not surprising then that the Holy Father is now in ‘You Tube’ (visit YouTube.com/Vatican). The CNN News calls it ‘PopeTube.’

The new media today are a major tool used for propaganda, to make and to mar, and the church cannot but make use of it to propagate the faith, to make strong the faith of our faithful and to mar the false teachings that come from detractors. The first apostles, St. Paul and his companions, used all the available means of communication of their time to transmit what we have today as the word of God. They travelled long distances, wrote letters and sent different kinds of correspondences far and near to teach, to preach and to convert. Today with the growth of technology we do not need to travel far to pass our messages; a message posted in the Internet could be accessed within seconds all over the world. This is a goal that no amount should be too much for us to achieve. We must invest heavily in proclaiming the gospel through the new media.

As a form of conclusion I offer the following opinion and suggestions:
First, the church should establish more international media channels that would explain the doctrine, teach the faith and inculcate religious morals to our people in a more detailed manner. Particular churches should attempt replicating the same for their nations, and dioceses should sponsor Catholic TV and radio programs in their territories.
Second, dioceses should develop and upgrade their websites to improve more interactivity. I applaud the efforts of most Catholic dioceses and organizations that have created websites. However, the contents of these websites must exceed mere contact addresses, names of parishes and personnel with a few write-ups. Let the sites be interactive. Let us have live-chats where faithful can log in and ask questions regarding their faith and belief with a church expert on theology and doctrine. These kinds of interactive live-chats are found in most websites of advertisers and marketers. We can utilize this means for our faith formation.

Third, with the way Catholic doctrines are misinterpreted by the media, the Catholic media practitioners must be more functional in using alternative media in transmitting and defending the faith. Teams of media experts should always read and analyse books written against the fundamental teachings of the church and should in turn write counter-books explaining the truth in more details. They should also monitor some of the wrong transmissions and misinterpretation of doctrines presented by the media and try correcting them using our channels or alternative media.

Fourth, as part of media interaction, dioceses should organize telephone call-in programs on TV and radio, promote and encourage the idea of our faithful sending emails to diocesan-provided addresses with questions, and be sure to get responses from designated church officials.

Fifth, we should encourage having more Catholic i-reporters whose duties would be to provide information through the Internet and serve as public relations agents. This should go with the creation of Catholic cyber-families to encourage faith-sharing communities through the internet. Facebook, YouTube, MySpace and the like are used as meeting points of socializing for people, and our Catholic Cyber-family site can be used as a meeting point for the exchange of religious knowledge, sound Catholic doctrine and faith sharing.

In Nigeria these may appear at first sight as unachievable goals because of our technological backwardness, but we would get there. And getting there means experimenting with what is available.